Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

The NVH app directly supports the following Parallel Hybrid Configurations

According to the SAE J1715, four parallel configurations are designated as P1, P2, P3, and P4. SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1175 defines a fifth parallel configuration named “P0”.

  • P0 Parallel = A hybrid system that utilizes an electric motor-generator coupled to the engine through a drive belt that can provide the function of the alternator and starter as well as hybrid functions of assist and regeneration.  These systems are known as Belt-Alternator-Starter (BAS) or Integrated Starter-Generator (ISG) systems.
  • P1 Parallel = A hybrid system that is connected directly to the crankshaft of the engine with some type of clutch/fluid coupling between the electric motor and the gearing. Example vehicles: Audi, BMW, Honda, Hyundai, Kia, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Volvo, VW. These systems are known as integrated motor-generator (IMG), integrated motor assist (IMA), flywheel assist system (FAS).
  • P2 Parallel = A hybrid system with one clutch/fluid coupling between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the electric motor and a second clutch/fluid coupling between the electric motor and the gearing. Example vehicles: Ford Explorer and F-150 Hybrid, Jeep Wrangler Unlimited PHEV, Toyota Tundra Hybrid.
  • P3 Parallel = A hybrid system that is connected directly to the driveshaft between the transmission and the differential/axle. Example vehicles: 2014-2016 Subaru Crosstrek Hybrid, Class 4-8 Trucks, BorgWarner Modular Drive. 
  • P4 Parallel = A hybrid system that is connected directly to the differential/axle. Example vehicles: The rear axle of a Toyota RAV4 AWD Hybrid, a Class 4-8 Truck rear axle.
    P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 Parallel Hybrid Configurations

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